How does the LED work?
The LED works when you put the longer side facing the red wire (positive) and the sorter side going to the black on (negative).
Capacitors are like buckets of electricity- they store current that goes through them, and when the main source of electricity (in this case, a battery) turns off the capacitor will provide the power it has to the circuit. The amount of power a capacitor can store is measured if Farads, and capacitors are different than batteries because they can only store energy and not generate it.
Sharing Current Explained
When all the wires were plugged in the LED showed a weak square. When I unplugged the yellow negative wire the LED showed a strong line. This means that when the power is shared it is weaker, and when its not shared its stronger.
How does the IR LED and phototransistor circuit work?
The IR LED works with the phototransistor implanted into the circuit because when the phototransistor does not recieve light is cuts off the circuit
How the PNP works with the capacitor to brighten the LED
A PNP transistor is only on when it has no power, however, it will turn off if you give it power. When the on switch is pushed, it will light up, but when the button is pushed, the capacitor leaks current that ends up at the PNP transistor. When the PNP receives this current, it turns the LED off.
Introducing The Potentiometer
The middle prong is atached to the sweeper the sweeper controls the amount of electricity that is going through the circuit