How the DC electric motor works
There is magnet magnet inside the motor and in between the magnet there is a rotor arm with a wire coiled around it, when the wire is connected with a current of electricity the electricity runs through the wire, so the rotor arm and the electricty creates an electro magnetic field that repels resulting in the motor spining.
About the PNP Transistor
When there is no voltage on the middle pin, the switch is on.
How the PNP makes the motor spin
the emitter pin is connected to the positive wire getting 9 volts.
the collector pin is connected to the motor then connected to the negative wire.
when the button is not pushed it is open and the base pin is connected to the positive side, and the PNP is off. When the button is pressed, it is closed, and the base pin is connected to the negative side, and no voltage is applied, so the PNP is on.
we learned that capacitors store electricity but don't produce it
About the Pushbutton LED Circuit
When you are pushing the button the circuit closes but when you are not pushing the button it opens
Segmented LED Explained
a led has two sides a positive and a negative. A group of segmented leds share a positive charge,the number board has both a negative and a positive side. The long prongs are shown by the pins to the left and right for either both the positive and negative sides each has there own function
EEME Dad's comments: A group of LEDs in the segmented LED share a positive prong. That prong is the middle prong in the top and bottom row of prongs in the segmented LED.