Segmented LED Explained
middle positive wire is connected to the four wires on the top end of the four LEDs. Those four wires are connected to the four LEDs.
How does the LED work?
The LED works by connecting the long side to the positive terminals and the short side to the negative terminals.
Capacitor leaks current as it charges
When you turn the circuit on the capacitor charges and it makes the resistor get higher powered; so, that when it gets more powerful it turns off the led.
About the Pushbutton LED Circuit
The Pushbutton is normally open, so the electricity can't run through unless you push the button.
PNP Transistor Review
emitter base and transistor
EEME Dad's comments: The prongs names are emitter, base, collector!
How the PNP makes the motor spin
When the button is not pushed (in the up position), positive current goes to the PNP's base pin, so no current goes through the PNP. When the button is pushed (in the down position), negative current goes to the PNP's base pin, so current flows through the PNP, through the motor, and to the negative battery wire.