Capacitors In A Circuit - Small Capacitor
The bigger the capacitor the more electricity is stored.
Understanding the Genius Light
The more light that hits the photo resistor the less energy or electricity it generates
EEME Dad's comments: The photoresistor doesn't actually generate any electricity. It changes resistance depending on how much light hits it which changes the amount of electric current that can flow through the photoresistor.
Capacitor is like a bucket for electricity. It can look like a battery, a battery makes electricity a capacitor stores it. It is measured in Farads. While this not always the case, the bigger the capacitor the more it can store. 1000 Farads for the larger and 10 for the smaller. In total the two capacitors can hold 1010 Micro Farads.
How Buzzer Circuit Works
The upper bus is connected to the buzzer which is connected to the tentacle which is connected to the resister which is connected to another tentacle and when two tentacles touch the buzzer sounds.
How the H-Bridge works
by using mirror circuits, current can be switched from positive to negative and then negative to positive, allowing the motor to turn in both directions.
EEME Dad's comments: The current isn't actually switching from positive to negative, just flipping in flow direction.
What is the bus part of the breadboard?
A bunch of holes that are connected to each other horizontally.