How squeezing the foam brightens the LED
The piece of foam conducts electricity. It also has resistance, and the resistance decreases when the foam is squeezed. Since the foam piece and the resistor are in series, when the foam resistance decreases the overall resistance of the circuit decreases, causing the LED to be brighter.
How does the circuit work?
the positive end of the led is connected to the positive end of the battery and the negative end is connected to the negative end completing the circuit
How is the IR LED unplugged?
The IR LED is unplugged because the resistor we moved is not connected to anything causing the circuit to be open.
Capacitor leaks current as it charges
The capacitor is like a bucket when electricity goes through in capacitor it lets the electricity out the more the capacitor fills up the less electricity comes out when the capacitor is full it stops leaking electricity
Capacitor With Transistor - How It Works
The LED Light stays lit w/ transistor because it works like a switch. If the base of it doesn't have voltage, the emitter won't either.
The small capacitor doesn't have enough voltage to keep the LED light lit long. However, the base of the transistor doesn't need as much voltage, so the capacitor has enough voltage to continue sending it to the transistor's base!
Tons of things in the build are wired up to the base pin of the transistor.
The collector pin of the transistor is connected to the yellow wire at the top bus, further continuing the huge connection of this build.
Lots of voltage is still in the capacitor even when the button is let go because it has been charged.
Segmented LED Explained
There are actually eight individual LEDs, including the dot. There are eight negative wires for the eight LEDs, but they share one positive wire. The positive wire is the center top wire.